Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Taste and AgRP

How Hunger Impacts Taste

Nature Communications just released a publication featuring use of our Agouti-Related Protein (AgRP) Antibody.

It examines the neuronal mechanisms regulating hunger-induced taste modification. Starved mice exhibit an increased preference for sweetness and tolerance for aversive taste. This hunger-induced taste modification is recapitulated by selective activation of orexigenic Agouti-related peptide (AgRP)-expressing neurons in the hypothalamus projecting to the lateral hypothalamus.
Ou Fu, Yuu Iwai, Masataka Narukawa, Ayako W. Ishikawa, Kentaro K. Ishii, Ken Murata, Yumiko Yoshimura, Kazushige Touhara, Takumi Misaka, Yasuhiko Minokoshi & Ken-ichiro Nakajima (2019). Hypothalamic neuronal circuits regulating hunger-induced taste modification. Nature Communications volume 10, Article number: 4560 https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-12478-x

Chemogenetic activation of AgRP neurons induces changes in taste preference. a Schematic image of the brief access taste test. The number of licks is measured during 10 s from the first lick. b, c Sweet (b) or bitter (c) taste preferences in fed or fasted mice. Sucrose or denatonium–sucrose solutions were presented to fed or 23-h-fasted C57BL/6J WT mice. n = 6, F = 17.81, and P = 9.4 × 10–5 in b and n = 6, F = 4.14, and P = 0.045 in c, two-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc test. d Bilateral injection of AAV encoding Cre-dependent hM3Dq-mCherry or hM4Di-mCherry into the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of AgRP-ires-Cre mouse. e Representative image showing hM3Dq-mCherry-expressing AgRP neurons (left) in the AgRP-hM3Dq mouse and hM4Di-mCherry-expressing AgRP neurons (right) in the AgRP-hM4Di mouse. f Chemogenetic activation of AgRP neurons led to acute food intake in AgRP-hM3Dq mice during the light period. n = 6, paired Student’s t test. g, h Brief access taste tests for sweet (g) or bitter (h) measured in AgRP-hM3Dq mice treated with saline or CNO (1.0 mg/kg i.p.) during the light cycle. n = 6, F = 8.783, and P = 0.0045 in g and n = 6, F = 7.929, and P = 0.0064 in h, two-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc test. i Chemogenetic inhibition of AgRP neurons led to a reduction of food intake in AgRP-hM4Di mice during the dark cycle. n = 7, paired Student’s t test. j, k Brief access taste tests for sweet (j) or bitter (k) measured in AgRP-hM4Di mice treated with saline or CNO (1.0 mg/kg i.p.) during the dark cycle. n = 7, F = 4.748, and P = 0.032 in j and n = 7, F = 4.761, and P = 0.032 in k, two-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc test. The experiments were carried out with 8- to 16-week-old male mice.
We have an extensive catalog of Neuronal Receptor Antibodies. Check the out today

Wednesday, October 02, 2019

Primary Human Cells Data

Internal Testing

We are data hounds. This is especially true when customers generate results that conflict with ours. For example, if our Human Primary Cells, in the hands of our customers, stain negative for key markers, we always retest using a 3rd Party Lab. Here're recent results for our Human Schwann Cells.
Neuromics' Schwann Cells stained with O1 Antibody (red) and DAPI (blue). 

Neuromics' Schwann Cells stained with s100 antibody (red) and DAPI (blue).
It is imperative that all our cells work as advertised. If your results do not meet expectations, we will run similar tests to make sure they walk and talk as they should.

Monday, September 16, 2019

High Fat and Diet Induced Obesity

i-FectTM Delivers Again!

Research shows that rats and humans on a high-fat diet (HFD) are less sensitive to satiety signals known to act via vagal afferent pathways. Impaired vagal afferent responsiveness to both gastric satiety hormones (CCK and leptin) and mechanical stimulation raises the possibility that changes in electrophysiological properties may be the underlying mechanism responsible for impaired vagal responsiveness to a wide variety of satiety signals.

Potassium channels play a central role. To demonstrate this researchers used our i-Fect siRNA Transfection Kit to silence TRESK and TASK1 to understand there impact on HFD on vagal responsiveness. Gintautas Grabauskas, Xiaoyin Wu, ShiYi Zhou, JiYao Li, Jun Gao, and Chung Owyang. (2019). High-fat diet–induced vagal afferent dysfunction via upregulation of 2-pore domain potassium TRESK channel. JCI Insight. https://doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.130402.

Images: (A) Representative recordings of NG neuron responses to intra–superior pancreaticoduodenal artery infusions of CCK-8 (60 pmol/kg) and leptin (60 pmol/kg) in LFD-fed or HFD-fed rats and transfected with control siRNA or TRESK siRNA. Note that CCK-8 generated significantly fewer action potentials in HFD-fed rats compared with those fed an LFD. (B) Summary histograms showing single-unit discharges in response to CCK-8 in rats given an LFD and transfected with control siRNA (n = 11) or TRESK siRNA (n = 6), HFD + control siRNA (n = 12), and HFD treated with TRESK siRNA (n = 10). Data are represented as mean ± SEM. One-way ANOVA with Bonferroni’s test, *P < 0.05 vs. LFD + control siRNA; #P < 0.05 vs. HFD + control siRNA. (C) Summary histogram showing single-unit discharges in response to leptin in rats given an LFD and transfected with control siRNA (n = 11) and TRESK siRNA (n = 5), HFD (n = 12), and HFD treated with TRESK siRNA (n = 10). Data are represented as mean ± SEM. One-way ANOVA with Bonferroni’s test, *P less than 0.05 vs. LFD + control siRNA; #P less than 0.05 vs. HFD + control siRNA. (D) Summary histogram showing CCK-AR and ObR expression in vagal sensory ganglia from LFD- and HFD-fed rats were not significantly different. HPRT was used as a loading control. Data are represented as mean ± SEM. CCK-8, cholecystokinin-8.

Following 2 weeks of high-fat feeding, there was a significant upregulation of TRESK and a modest increase in TASK1 channels in the NG. Silencing studies indicate that the upregulation by TRESK channels is mainly responsible for a global decrease in excitability of vagal sensory neurons, which in turn dampens the response to satiety signals, such as CCK and leptin. 

This make TRESK a potential therapeutic target for treating Obesity.


Saturday, September 07, 2019

Potent FBS-Only $289/500 ml.

Hurry!
We our a bit over stocked in FBS. In order to fix, we are offering it for $289/500 ml. This offer is only good through September 15, 2019 so you will need to hurry.

Primary mouse vascular smooth muscle cells stained with smooth muscle alpha actin in DMEM with Neuromics 10% FBS. Data courtesy of Deng-Fu Guo, University of Iowa.

Note: We test each lot of FBS on our primary human cell cultures enabling us to choose lots yielding the best results...Testimonial: "We have used the FBS from Neuromics in feeding media for primary mouse astrocytes as well as for some cell lines. Your product is good and we plan to continue using it.” - Svetlana Vidensky, MS, Senior Research Specialist in Dr. Jeffrey Rothstein lab, Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University. Questions?  Contact Rose at rose@neuromics.com or 952-374-6161

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Human Primary Endothelial Cells

Potent, Pure and Culture Ready
Looking for endothelial cells? Check out related publications and reviews.

Ravi D. on BirdEye ★★★★★
4 months ago We have ordered Brain derived Endothelial Cells or BECs. We could not find these in different companies, particularly from multiple donors. Overall, we are happy with the products.

Image: Human microvascular network formation based on microfluidic 3D HUVEC culture. a Schematic diagram of HUVECs seeding in the fibrin hydrogel. b Schematic diagram of microvascular network formation in the fibrin hydrogel. c Microscope image of HUVECs just seeding in fibrin hydrogel. d Confocal microscope image of human microvascular networks. Journal of Nanobiotechnologyvolume 17, Article number: 20 (2019)

Questions? Contact Rose Ludescher, Manager of Customer Satisfaction, rose@neuromics.com

Saturday, August 17, 2019

FBS-Data/Pubs/Reviews

Only $339 USD/500 ml.
We are pleased with the increasing amount of Data, Pubs and Reviews. Here's some samples:
DRGs cultured in media supplemented with Neuromics' FBS

Gabriela Fernandes, Stephen T Vanyo, Shahad Bakheet Alsharif, Sebastiano Andreana, Michelle B Visser, Rosemary Dziak, Ph.D. Strontium Effects on Human Gingival Fibroblasts. https://doi.org/10.1563/aaid-joi-D-18-00253.

"I looked around for a good price on FBS and Neuromics has the best price and great selection." Tracy Doebler - Aug 08, 2019 - Rating: 5.0

You can request a sample by emailing Rose Ludescher, Manager, Customer Satisfaction rose@neuromics.com.

Sunday, August 04, 2019

i-Fect Delivers circRNA and miRNA

Blocks Bone Cancer Pain
Altered expression of circular RNA (circRNA) is recognized as a contributor to malignant pain where microRNA (miRNA) exerts an essential effect. Researchers used our i-FectTMTransfection Kit to knock them down. Zhongqi Zhang, Xiaoxia Zhang, Yanjing Zhang, Jiyuan Li, Zumin Xing. Yiwen Zhang. Spinal circRNA-9119 Suppresses Nociception by Mediating the miR-26a-TLR3 Axis in a Bone Cancer Pain Mouse Model. Spinal circRNA-9119 Suppresses Nociception by Mediating the miR-26a-TLR3 Axis in a Bone Cancer Pain Mouse Model. Journal of Molecular Neuroscience. pp 1–10

Intrathecal Administration of miRNA and circRNA Pre-miRNA sequence of miR-26a and circ9119 were cloned into a plasmid. The i-Fect transfection reagent (10 μL; Neuromics, Edina, USA) was used to resuspend plasmids for injection.

Sample Data

Image: siRNA-mediated suppression of target gene expression in Schwann cells.
i-Fect Kits sell for 399 USD. They are widely used and frequently published. Check the out today.

Monday, July 22, 2019

Thursday, July 11, 2019

Rodent Cortical Astroglia

Controls for iPSC Derived Astroglia
We have been providing Neuroscientists rodent neurons and astroglia for many years. As a result, they have been frequently referenced in publications.

Here's a recent publications. In this study. the authors use our rat atsroglia as controls to determine homogeneity of iPSC derived cells.

P. Ni, H. Noh, Z. Shao, Q. Zhu, Y. Guan, J.J. Park, F. Arif, J.M. Park, C. Abani, C. Beaudreault, J.S. Park, E. Berry, A. Moghadam, P. Stanton, J.N. Hutchinson, B. Andrews, C. Faux, J. Parnevelas, L.M. Eisenberg, K. Park, V.Y. Bolshakov, S. Chung. (2019). Large-Scale Generation and Characterization of Homogeneous Populations of Migratory Cortical Interneurons from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells. Molecular Therapy-Methods & Clinical Development, 13:414-430. doi: 10.1016/j.omtm.2019.04.002.

Figure: CDP Treatment Enhances Migratory, Morphological, and Electrophysical Maturation (A) Analysis scheme for migration, arborization, and electrophysiology of cINs. (B) CDP treatment significantly increased the migration of generated iPSC cINs. cIN organoids were embedded in a Geltrex matrix at 9 weeks of differentiation with or without CDP treatment and analyzed for migration 7 days after embedding. White scale bars, 200 μm; yellow scale bars, 100 μm.

Need Cells? Just ask us. Rose Ludescher, Manager of Customer Satisfaction, rose@neuromics.com or 866-350-1500.

Sunday, July 07, 2019

Potent and Proven TUJ-1 Markers

Referenced in Over 50 Publications
Tuj-1 is a key marker for neurogenesis. It can be detected in immature neurons and persists throughout the adulthood. We have 2 options both are widely used and frequently published.
Tuj-1 Chicken Polyclonal
Tuj-1 Mouse Monoclonal
Figure: A-B Representative confocal images of tdTomato+/Myosin7a+ hair cells (asterisks and dashed lines) from early and late tracing associated with Tuj1+ neurites (arrowheads in orthogonal views, n = 127 cells from 3 mice for early tracing and 73 cells from 9 mice for late tracing). Published: July 1, 2019https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000326.


We have great markers for studying neurogenesis.

Thursday, June 27, 2019

FBS-Put it to Work

Priced Right

We provide, to our customers, the same Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS) we use in our defined media. This FBS enriched media is used in culturing all our human 2 and 3-D based Assays. Our FBS is of the highest quality and priced right at $379/500 ml.

Here're some recent publications referencing its use.

  • Gabriela Fernandes, Stephen T Vanyo, Shahad Bakheet Alsharif, Sebastiano Andreana, Michelle B Visser, Rosemary Dziak, Ph.D. Strontium Effects on Human Gingival Fibroblasts. https://doi.org/10.1563/aaid-joi-D-18-00253
  • Douglas Dickinson, Shannon Xayaraj, Sarah Dickinson, Xueling Shao, and Stephen Hsu.  Effect of Novel Formulations using Lipophilic Epigallocatechin3-Gallate against Influenza Virus Infection. Microbiol Infect Dis. 2018; 2(3): 1-8
  • Fei Cao, Li-Xue Yin. (2018). miR-122 enhances sensitivity of hepatocellular carcinoma to oxaliplatin via inhibiting MDR1 by targeting Wnt/β-catenin pathwayExperimental and Molecular Pathology. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yexmp.2018.10.009
  • Amélie Robert, Peirun Tian, Stephen A. Adam, Mark Kittisopikul, Khuloud Jaqaman, Robert D. Goldman, and Vladimir I. Gelfand. Kinesin-dependent transport of keratin filaments: a unified mechanism for intermediate filament transport. 26 Jun 2018https://doi.org/10.1096/fj.201800604R
  • Mayuri Manoj Vaidya (2018). Verification of Apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cells Post NBA Photodynamic Therapy Using DNA Fragmentation Assay and Cell Death Dyes. (Doctoral Dissertation). University of Texas San Antonio 


  • And a recent review

    We bought a large order of FBS from Neuromics. Our experience with their customer service was great. They offered us the best price and worked with us on any issue issues that came up on our side.Olesya Plazyo - Mar 12, 2019 - Rating: 5.0

    We offer 50 ml. samples for testing. If interested email rose@neuromics.com.

    Wednesday, June 19, 2019

    Sex Differences on the Behavior of Human Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells (HBMECS)

    The Risk of Stroke
    There are sex differences in risk for stroke and small vessel ischemic disease in the brain. Microvesicles (MV) derived from activated cells vary by cell of origin and the stimulus initiating their release. MV released from cells activated by inflammatory and thrombotic factors have the potential to disrupt endothelial cells of the brain microvasculature. Therefore, experiments were designed to identify sex differences in the phenotype of MV released from cultured human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC) in response to inflammatory and thrombotic stimuli (Biology of Sex Differences201910:26 https://doi.org/10.1186/s13293-019-0241-y).

    Neuromics' HBMECS, derived from a male donor, were used to study the differences between Male and Female Cells. There are indeed striking differences in the expression of Cell Adhesion Molecules when the male and female cells were stimulated with inflammatory and thrombotic factors.
    4 Fold increase in release of MV from male (open bars) and female (black bars) HBMEC expressing cell adhesion molecules following stimulation with either TNFα (20 ng/ml) or THR (2 U/ml) for 20 h

    These molecules, in part, control tight junctions in HBMECS. In stroke patients, these are disrupted resulting in injury to the brain.

    The findings  underscore the appropriateness of identifying the sex of cells used in research studies of MV disposition within the vasculature, as well as the sex of cells used to generate MV for in vitro studies

    Wednesday, May 29, 2019

    Human Pancreatic CAFS and Tumor Dynamics

     Extracellular Matrix (ECM) Matters
    Our Human Pancreatic Cancer Fibroblasts were recently featured in a publication focusing on the role of the ECM on tumor dynamics. Andreas Stylianou, Vasiliki Gkretsi, Maria Louca, Lefteris C. Zacharia, and Triantafyllos Stylianopoulos (2019). Collagen content and extracellular matrix cause cytoskeletal remodelling in pancreatic fibroblasts. J. R. Soc. Interface 16: 20190226. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsif.2019.0226.

    Commercially available pancreatic native human FBs and,CAFs (cat. nos. SC00A5 and CAF08, respectively, Neuromics) were cultured in MSC-GRO (VitroPlus III, low serum, complete,
    cat. no. SC00B1, Neuromics) medium in a 5% CO2-incubator at 37OC.


    Figure: Representative CAFs spheroids embedded in collagen gels at time 0 and at 6 h post implantation, respectively.

    The results demonstrated that collagen concentration and consequently ECM stiffening differentially modulates FBs and CAFs cytoskeleton remodelling and invasion with stress fibre orientation being significantly altered in FBs. Finally, the presence of TGF-b reverses the suppressive effect of collagen stiffness on cell invasion.

    Wednesday, May 22, 2019

    Neurofilament Antibodies-Check Them Out

    Widely Used and Frequently Published
    Our Neurofilament Antibodies are well characterized and research ready. Here is a recent publication using one of our Neurofilament Heavy Antibodies. Jennifer M. Hahn, Kelly A. Combs, Christopher M. Lloyd, Kevin L. McFarland, Steven T. Boyce, and Dorothy M. Supp. Identification of Merkel cells associated with neurons in engineered skin substitutes after grafting to full thickness wounds. PLoS One. 2019; 14(3): e0213325. Published online 2019 Mar 5. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0213325.
    Figures: Merkel cells in grafted ESS are associated with neurons expression neurofilament heavy (NF-M) by eight weeks after grafting. Immunochemistry with antibodies against NF-H (red) and KRT20 (green) was used to localize neurons and Merkel cells, respectively, in ESS after grafting to mice. Nuclei were counterstained with DAPI (blue; B, D, F, H). Shown are cross sections of ESS at 4 weeks (A-B), 8 weeks (C-D), 12 weeks (E-F), and 14 weeks (G-H) after grafting; each row contains images of the same section. Scale bars in A is same for all images. White arrows indicate examples of NF-H-positive nerves associated with or in proximity to Merkel cells; yellow arrows indicate NF-H-positive nerves not associated with Merkel cells.

    Remember. All our antibodies come with a money back guarantee. Your satisfaction is joh #1 for us. 

    Monday, May 13, 2019

    We Can Sell and Deliver FBS in Large Volumes

    This is Includes Single Lots
    We are pleased with the growth in our FBS business. This is being made possible, in part, to our ability to find the "sweet spot" by coupling low pricing with high quality.

    We offer all potential customers free samples to test with the idea that they find the "sweet spot." This leads to happy customers and repeat business.

    Here's a volume shipment wrapped and ready to go.
    2 pallets of 700X500 ml. Bottles FBS.

    Need FBS? Just ask us. Learn more by emailing rose@neuromics.com. Thank you!

    i-Fect Scores Again

    Knock-down of HIF-1a Attenuates Chemo Induced Pain
    i-Fect TM is one of our original products. It has enjoyed 14 years of upping transfection percentages both in-vitro and in-vivo.

    Here is a new study showing successful use of i-Fect to knock down HIF-1a in-vivo-Taylor Ludman and Ohannes K. Melemedjian. (2019). Bortezomib-induced aerobic glycolysis contributes to chemotherapy-induced painful peripheral neuropathy. Molecular Pain. https://doi.org/10.1177/1744806919837429.


    Figure 1. (a) Treatment of mice with bortezomib (Bor) for five days augmented HIF1A expression in L4-6 DRGs (*P ¼ 0.0412, five mice/ group) relative to the vehicle-treated group. (b) A schematic depicting the site of the intrathecal (IT) siRNA injection. The siRNA was administered between the L4 and L5 vertebrae which is around 17 mm rostral to the spinal cord (SC) section innervated by the L4-6 DRGs. (c) IT injection of siRNA (1 mg in 5 ml) that targets HIF1A (siRNA) but not control siRNA (Cont), for two consecutive days, significantly reduced the levels of HIF1A in L4-6 DRGs. (***P=0.0006, five mice/group). (d) IT siRNA did not affect HIF1A levels in L4-6 spinal cord (five mice/group). (e) After determining baseline withdrawal thresholds using von Frey filaments, male ICR mice received IP injection of vehicle or bortezomib (black arrows) and IT siRNA (blue arrows). The withdrawal thresholds were measured on days 7 to 14. IT HIF1A siRNA prevented the development of bortezomib-induced neuropathic pain. (****P less than 0.0001, five mice/group). DRG: dorsal rootganglia; HIF1A: hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha; IT: intrathecal; IP: intraperitoneal; siRNA: small interfering RNA.


    This study is the first to demonstrate that the stabilization of HIF1A expression underpins the development of bortezomib-induced neuropathic pain. Crucially, these findings reveal that the initiation and maintenance of bortezomib-induced neuropathic pain are regulated by distinct mechanisms.

    Saturday, April 27, 2019

    We Have Human Bone Marrow Derived Stem Cells

    Pure and Potent-Only $655/500,000 Cells
    Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells isolated from bone marrow and provided a low passage. These cells have the ability to be passaged five to 10 passages in our Low Serum, Complete Medium (#SC00B1); which is optimized for high growth rates, reduced doubling times, healthy cells and stability. This Product is manufactured, tested and validated in an ISO 9001/ISO13485/CLIA certified facility.

    Tuesday, April 16, 2019

    Gut Brain Axis

    Helicobacter pylori Induced Anxiety and Anorexia
    Our PGP9.5 was used as a Hypothalamic Neuronal Marker in this study-Hajime Suzuki, Koji Ataka, Akihiro Asakawa, Kai-Chun Cheng, Miharu Ushikai, Haruki Iwai, Takakazu Yagi, Takeshi Arai, Kinnosuke Yahiro, Katsuhiro Yamamoto, Yoshito Yokoyama, Masayasu Kojima, Toshihiko Yada, Toshiya Hirayama, Norifumi Nakamura & Akio Inui (2019). Helicobacter pylori Vacuolating Cytotoxin A Causes Anorexia and Anxiety via Hypothalamic Urocortin 1 in Mice. Scientific Reports volume 9, Article number: 6011.

    Images: Ucn1- and DAPI-positive cells (yellow arrow heads), or Ucn1- and PGP9.5-positive cells (white arrow heads) in the PVN cells.

    This is the first study demonstrating the anorexigenic and anxiogenic effects of VacA. The authors propose the following. VacA secreted by Hp in the stomach travels via the peripheral circulation and passes through the BBB. VacA binds to LRP1 and activates the intracellular PLC-PKC pathway, resulting in the activation of Ucn1-positive neurons, such as in the PVN of the hypothalamus. Secreted Ucn1 induces the inhibition of food intake through CRF2 receptors and anxiety through CRF1 receptors (Fig. 6). The central Ucn1-CRF receptor axis activated by VacA might be a new important pathway that contributes to the anorexigenic and anxiogenic effects of Hp infection and could be a therapeutic target for Hp-induced alterations.

    Wednesday, April 03, 2019

    Your Data Wanted

    Reward is $50 Amazon Gift Card

    We are always honored when customers share their data and images. More is better! This month we would like to reward you for any data or images featuring any of our products you share with us.

    Just e-mail Rose Ludescher, Manager of Customer Satisfaction, at rose@neuromics.com , and she will e-mail you a $50 Amazon Gift Card.

    Example Data


    HUMAN PANCREATIC CAF-STELLATE CELLS-Stained with alpha-SMA + DAP1 20x. Courtesy of Emily Rodela, TGEN-Courtesy of Emila Rodela, T-Gen.

    Tuesday, March 19, 2019

    Human and Animal Cardiomyocytes

    Pure, Potent and Easy to Culture

    Check out our hMSC Derived Human Cardiomyocytes-These cells are optimized to provide addition options for in-vitro testing of drug to drug candidate toxicities allowing researchers to rule out the ineffective and potentially small compounds/toxic compounds early in the process.

    Human Cardiomyocytes in Culture

    Neuromics also offers primary rat and mouse cardiomyocyte tissue and disassociated cells.

    Thursday, March 07, 2019

    Neuron-Glial Markers

    Featuring Neurofilament Antibodies
    We have the honor of our Neuron-Glial Markers being referenced in many publications. Here we wanted to feature some recent data from one of our Neurofilament Antibodies.

    Fig. Merkel cells in grafted ESS are associated with neurons expression neurofilament heavy (NF-M) by eight weeks after grafting. Immunochemistry with antibodies against NF-H (red) and KRT20 (green) was used to localize neurons and Merkel cells, respectively, in ESS after grafting to mice. Nuclei were counterstained with DAPI (blue; B, D, F, H). Shown are cross sections of ESS at 4 weeks (A-B), 8 weeks (C-D), 12 weeks (E-F), and 14 weeks (G-H) after grafting; each row contains images of the same section. Scale bars in A is same for all images. White arrows indicate examples of NF-H-positive nerves associated with or in proximity to Merkel cells; yellow arrows indicate NF-H-positive nerves not associated with Merkel cells. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0213325.g009

    Remember we offer 100% refunds should you not be delighted with the performance of our antibodies.

    Tuesday, February 26, 2019

    Neuromics' Human Brain Pericytes Guide Axon Growth

    Study Interactions Between Blood Vessels and Nerve Cells
    Our GFP-Labeled Human Brian Pericytes were used by Spinal Cord Injury Researchers to evaluate the efficacy of aligned microvessels to induce and control directional axon growth from neural progenitor cells in vitro and host axons in a rat spinal cord injury model. Interstitial fluid flow aligned microvessels generated from co-cultures of cerebral-derived endothelial cells and pericytes in a three-dimensional scaffold. Paul P. Partyka, Ying Jin, Julien Bouyer, Angelica DaSilva, George A. Godsey, Robert G. Nagele, Itzhak Fischer & Peter A. Galie (2019). Harnessing neurovascular interaction to guide axon growth. Scientific Reports volume 9, Article number: 2190. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-38558-y

    Axon guidance at the site of a cervical spinal cord injury in a rat model. (Ai) Schematic illustrating transplantation of scaffold into a C-4 hemisection. The injury cavity is shown prior to (ii) and immediately following (iii) transplantation. (Bi) Scaffold conditioned with flow exhibits viable GFP-labeled microvessels (green) (ii) and alignment of host axons (magenta) infiltrating the scaffold in the rostral-caudal direction (grey arrow). (C) Scaffold conditioned in static conditions showing disrupted alignment of both microvessels (ii) and host axons (iii). (D–F) Microvessel and axon plots showing alignment (D,E) and length (F). Scale bars, 1 mm (Aii,Aiii) and 50 μm (B,C). Data are presented as mean ± s.e.m. ***P < 0.001; statistical significance was calculated using Welch Two Sample t-test. White arrows denote proximity of axons with microvessels. Microvessel alignment values (n = 30), axon alignment values (n = 30), microvessel length values (n = 15), and axon length values (n = 15) are from single hydrogel samples per condition.
    The authors conclude aligned microvessels have the dual benefit of providing the basis for a vascular bed within the scaffold to promote cell survival and directing the growth of regenerating axons. Future studies will evaluate the functional benefit resulting from delivery of this multifunctional treatment strategy in various models of CNS injury.

    Thursday, February 14, 2019

    Sorting Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts (CAFs)

    Featuring Our Colorectal CAFS
    CAFs play a central role in the Tumor Microenvironment (TME). The TME has been identified as one of the driving factors of tumor progression and invasion. Inside this microenvironment, CAFs, a type of perpetually activated fibroblasts, have been implicated to have a strong tumor modulating effect and play a key role in areas such as drug resistance.

    This makes CAFs a target for cancer therapies. The challenge is the TME is heterogeneous making it a challenge to derive homogeneously relevant populations for basic research and drug discovery. This new study uses our Colorectal CAFs to identify markers for isolating these populations. Martin Nurmik, Pit Ullmann, Fabien Rodriguez, Serge Haan, Elisabeth Letellier. In search of definitions: Cancer-associated fibroblasts and their markers. doi: 10.1002/ijc.32193.

    Images: Expression of common markers in patient-derived fibroblasts. Immunofluorescent staining of primary colon cancer fibroblasts (Neuromics, #CAF05), reveals a heterogeneous expression pattern for both αSMA/ACTA2 (abcam #ab7817, 1/200) and FAP (Santa-Cruz Biotechnology #sc-65398, 1/200), while PDGFRα (abcam #ab61219, 1/200) expression in tested cells remains relatively homogenous. Nuclei of fibroblasts were stained using DAPI (DAPI Fluoromount-G® Mounting Medium). Image is representative of three independent biological experiments.Cells were imaged using a Zeiss LSM 510 Meta laser scanning confocal microscope (Carl Zeiss, Jena, Germany) with a Plan-Apochromat 63x/1.40.


    The authors conclude when selecting for CAF populations using antibody-based methods such as FACS, it is essential that multiple surface markers are used in order to avoid any chance of introducing unintentional subtype bias. Other available surface markers such as PDGFRα/β work well here, as do more general fibroblast surface markers like Thy-1 cell surface antigen (CD90), provided that the cell population is also subjected to selection with negative markers,

    Thursday, February 07, 2019

    Neuromics Human Cells at Work

    Work Great in 3-D Assays

    Neuromics Human Primary Cells are being used with increasing frequency in 3-D Cell-Based Assays. Last month, we posted a publication referencing use of our Human Pericytes in a Blood-Brain Barrier Model.

    In this publication, our GFP-Labeled HUVECS are used in a 3-D Microfluidics Chip Model to study the impact of indoor airborne particles on human health. Yan Li, Chuanlin Hu, Pengcheng Wang, Yan Liu, Luyang Wang, Qingmeng Pi, Zhiyong Gong, Xu Yang, Michael Mak and Yang Wu (2019). Indoor nanoscale particulate matter-induced coagulation abnormality based on a human 3D microvascular model on a microfluidic chip. Journal of Nanobiotechnology 2019 17:20. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12951-019-0458-2

    Images: Development progress of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) by 2D culture and 3D culture. a 2D HUVEC culture in a disk, b–e camera image of fluorescent HUVECs developed from day 1 to day 4. f 3D HUVEC culture in a chip, g–j camera image of fluorescent HUVECs developed from day 1 to day 4.
    Remember, we have a 100% money back policy should the cells not work in your hands.

    Monday, January 28, 2019

    Neuromics' Islet-1 Used to Study Avian Heart Morphology

    Evolution of High-Performance Hearts

    Our Islet-1 Antibody showed its versatility a comparative morphology of avian hearts.

    Figure: Sinuatrial node in Mallard (a–c), chicken HH42 (d–g), Lesser redpoll (h–j), and Jackdaw (k–m). All sections are in the transverse plane. The boxed areas in the left-hand column images indicate the areas of the images of the middle and right-hand columns. (a–c) In the Mallard, a nodal structure at the base of the right leaflet of the sinuatrial valve (black arrowhead in [a]) expressed Isl1 (b, c) and had a large coronary artery (white arrowhead in [b]). Sections 271 (cranial) to 1201 (caudal) encompassed the atria and the sections shown are 691 (a), 692 (b), 762 (c). (d–g) In the chicken HH42, the sinus venosus (SV) expressed the myocardial marker cTnI and this expression was relatively weak at the base of the right leaflet of the sinuatrial valve (black arrowhead in [e]). (f–g) The base of the right leaflet of the sinuatrial valve expressed Bmp2 (red arrowheads in [f]) and Isl1 [g]). Sections 17 (cranial) to 297 (caudal) encompassed the atria and the sections shown are 80 (d-e), 78 (f ), 88 (g). The sections were from the mid-height of the atria. (h–j) In the lesser redpoll, Isl1 was expressed in the base of the right leaflet of the sinuatrial valve. There was no nodal structure but the Isl1 expressing wall was thicker than the surrounding walls and contained a large coronary artery (white arrowhead in [i]). Sections 321 (cranial) to 621 (caudal) encompassed the atria and the sections shown are 401 (h), 402 (i), 422 (j). (k–m) In the Jackdaw an Isl1 positive area was seen in the left sinus venosus myocardium (l) in which a coronary artery was visible (white arrowhead in (l). At the base of the right sinuatrial leaflet no positive Isl1 cells could be seen (m). Sections 122 (cranial) to 332 (caudal) encompassed the atria and the sections shown are 190 (k) and 191 (l–m). Ao = aorta; LA = left atrium; PA = pulmonary artery; RA = right atrium; SAJ = sinuatrial junction. In the picro-sirius red images blood has been painted over with white for clarity. DOI: 10.1002/jmor.20952

    We have an extensive catalog of high-performance antibodies.

    Friday, January 18, 2019

    Markers for the Study of Diabetic Neuropathy

    Widely Used and Frequently Published
    Our Pain and Inflammation Research Antibodies have proven valuable for the study of neuropathic, nociceptive and inflammatory pain.

    This recent publication is focused on Diabetic Neuropathy. José Eduardo Roa-Coria, Jorge Baruch Pineda-Farias, Paulino Barragán-Iglesias, Geovanna Nallely Quiñonez-Bastidas, Ángel Zúñiga-Romero, Juan Carlos Huerta-Cruz, Juan Gerardo Reyes-García, Francisco Javier Flores-Murrieta, Vinicio Granados-SotoView ORCID ID profile and Héctor Isaac Rocha-González (2019). Possible involvement of peripheral TRP channels in the hydrogen sulfide-induced hyperalgesia in diabetic rats. BMC Neuroscience 201920:1 https://doi.org/10.1186/s12868-018-0483-3.

    The results show Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) catalyzes hyperalgesia in rats via TRP Channels. Our Substance P is used in the study.


    Figure: Immunolocalization of cystathionin-β-synthase enzyme (CBS, red) with a–e neuronal nuclear antigen (NeuN)-, f–j substance P (SP)-, k–o isolectin B4 (IB4)- and p–t glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive dorsal root ganglion neurons of diabetic rats (green). a, f, k and p show a representative 16 µm-slice from dorsal root ganglia. b, g, l and q show a representative CBS staining with Cy3 from dorsal root neurons, whereas c, h, m and r show NeuN, SP, IB4 and GFAP representative staining with Cy2 in dorsal root neurons, respectively. d, i, n and s show the merged image from Cy3 and Cy2 signals, the overlapping between CBS and neuronal markers is shown in a yellow-orange color. e, j, o and t show a magnification of d, i, n and s, respectively.


    The authors conclude that H2S leads to hyperalgesia in diabetic rats through activation of TRPV1, TRPA1 and TRPC channels and, subsequent intraepidermal fibers loss. CBS enzyme inhibitors or TRP-channel blockers could be useful for the treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy.

    Wednesday, January 09, 2019

    Rat Hippocampal Neurons

    Used to Study Apoptosis Induced by Brain Insults
    Although our primary human cells are increasingly being used in drug discovery and toxicology assays versus animal cells, we are always pleased to see the success of the latter in sophisticated studies.

    This publication references use of our e18 rat hippocampal neurons. These cells continue to be easy to culture, pure and potent. Chiara Porro, Antonia Cianciulli, Teresa Trotta, Dario Domenico Lofrumento, Rosa Calvello and Maria Antonietta Panaro. (2019). Formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine Induces Apoptosis in Murine Neurons: Evidence for NO-Dependent Caspase-9 Activation. Biology 8(1), 4; doi:10.3390/biology8010004.

    Highlights
    Formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) may be present in the brain in the course of some infectious diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), although little is known about its role. This investigation was performed to study the effect of fMLP on neuron apoptosis. The results showed that fMLP treatment of primary cultures of neurons was able to induce morphological features of apoptosis in cell cultures, as well as activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway, through the upregulation of caspase-9 and caspase-3.

    Figure. (A) Western blot analysis was performed on membrane-enriched cell extracts (25 µg lysate) of primary neurons. The blots were probed with formyl peptide receptor 2 (FPR2) antibody (Ab) and detected by chemiluminescence. A ~41 kDa band corresponding to FPR2 was observed as compared to the positive control. Lane 1: Marker; lane 2: Positive control, lane 3: Primary neuron lysate. (B) Immunofluorescence identification of FPR. Double staining shows the expression of the FPR receptor on the cell membrane and neurofilaments. FPR2 expression (green); skeleton protein staining of neuron-specific neurofilament 68 (red); DAPI nuclear staining (blue); cells stained by both neurofilament 68, FPR2 and DAPI (merged). Scale bar: 100 μm. 1): neurofilaments stain; 2) FPR2 expression; 3) DAPI stain; 4) merged.

    The present study emphasizing the potential role of infectious agents, such as N-formyl peptides, in neurodegenerative diseases may help to promote the development of new therapies able to modulate the expression of the N-formyl peptide receptors.

    Tuesday, January 01, 2019

    Human Primary Cells Trifecta

    Tri-culture of Neuromics' Human Primary Cells in 3-D BBB Model

    I mentioned in an earlier post that we take Researchers questioning the validity of our Human Primary Cells very seriously. We follow up with our clients to make sure our cells are working as expected. If they are not 100% happy, we offer a free replacement or full refund.

    ...So it is encouraging to see Researchers using our Human PericytesBrain Microvascular Endothelial Cells (HBMES) and Astrocytes to build a static 3-D Blood-Brain Barrier Model.

    Ece Bayir, M. Mert Celtikoglu, Aylin Sendemira. The use of bacterial cellulose as a basement membrane improves the plausibility of the static in vitro blood-brain barrier model. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2018.12.257.
    Image: Pericytes, HBMECS, and Astrocytes 5 days after culturing. Live cells (green) and dead cells (red).

    The investigators concluded, "Caffeine and sucrose permeability values obtained from all models were close to literature data and physiological values."

    Thursday, December 27, 2018

    Primary Human Brain Pericytes

    Pure and Potent
    The authors of a chapter on pericytes published in SpringerLink referred to our human primary pericytes as "pericyte-like", but chose not to characterize them because of the "exorbitant cost". Dore-Duffy P., Esen N. (2018) The Microvascular Pericyte: Approaches to Isolation, Characterization, and Cultivation. In: Birbrair A. (eds) Pericyte Biology - Novel Concepts. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, vol 1109. Springer, Cham

    Given that these pericytes are also part of our hot selling 3-D Human BBB Model, we are in the process of challenging these claims. We will always take inaccurate claims regarding our solutions seriously, and we take immediate action.
    • Characterization of cells-we validated several key markers by immunofluorescence.


    Staining of Desmin (dilution 1:100). Secondary antibody conjugated to Alexa 594 (red) and counterstained with DAPI (blue). Cells were mounted using iBrite mounting media.

    Staining of Actin (dilution 25 ug/mL). Secondary antibody conjugated to Alexa 594 (red) and counterstained with DAPI (blue). Cells were mounted using iBrite mounting media.
    We also plan on doing a phenotypic analysis of these cells and will post here when completed.
    • Cost of cells-isolating pericytes from human donors, and expanding to the required number of cells involves much time and effort. We know! Further differentiating stem cells into pericytes is hard and time-consuming. Against this backdrop, we consider our pricing to be inexpensive. Though they are more difficult to derive, they are priced equivalently with our other human primary cells ($789/500,000 USD Cells).
    As always, we will post new data here.

    Saturday, December 15, 2018

    Neuromics FBS at 259 USD/500 ml.

    Only 2 Weeks Left
    We wanted to get our FBS in the hands of more cell culturing experts. Our low pricing has accelerated purchasing of this culture supplement.

    More importantly, we are pleased with the positive feedback. Here are some recent reviews.
    on BirdEye
     ★
    9 days ago
    My experience with Neuromics was very positive. I asked for a sample of FBS and after to use the FBS I received. 
    on BirdEye
     
    month ago
    I purchased FBS from Neuromics. It was shipped to Canada without any problems. It arrived safely and still frozen. Cells grow well in the product. Customer service was great and I will definitely shop here again.

    Here are the most recent publications:
    1. Fei Cao, Li-Xue Yin. (2018). miR-122 enhances sensitivity of hepatocellular carcinoma to oxaliplatin via inhibiting MDR1 by targeting Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Experimental and Molecular Pathology. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yexmp.2018.10.009 
    2. Amélie Robert, Peirun Tian, Stephen A. Adam, Mark Kittisopikul, Khuloud Jaqaman, Robert D. Goldman, and Vladimir I. Gelfand. Kinesin-dependent transport of keratin filaments: a unified mechanism for intermediate filament transport. 26 Jun 2018https://doi.org/10.1096/fj.201800604R 
    3. Mayuri Manoj Vaidya (2018). Verification of Apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cells Post NBA Photodynamic Therapy Using DNA Fragmentation Assay and Cell Death Dyes. (Doctoral Dissertation). University of Texas San Antonio
    The pricing is good through December 31, 2018.

    Tuesday, November 27, 2018

    Pain Receptors and Diabetic Neuropathy

    We Got the Markers
    Our Markers for Pain Research are widely used and frequently published. They are often referenced in publications on Diabetic nerve pain.

    Here are some of my past blog postings:
    Here's a model of the actual nerve receptors behind both intractable pain and loss of sensation.
    A: Simplified model of nociception under normal conditions. Free nerve endings transduce a painful stimulus into a neural signal, which propagates to DRG centrally and eventually synapses on a nociceptive neuron within the DH of the spinal cord.B: Proposed model of nociception under conditions of diabetic hyperalgesia and allodynia. A pain signal augmented by upregulated pronociceptive ion channels in sensory neurons is carried toward the DH, where it is further augmented by a hypoactive GABAergic system and subsequently diminished inhibition from an inhibitory interneuron. NMDAR, N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptors. https://doi.org/10.2337/dbi15-0006
    We will continue to post findings on the root causes and potential treatment for Neuropathy.