Friday, December 23, 2011

Salivary Neuropeptides Y2s and Satiety

A possible new slant for combating obesity

The researchers in this study acheived a sustained increased PYY3-36 (a neuropeptide) expression via viral vector-mediated gene delivery targeting salivary glands and the good news: this increase resulted in a significant long-term reduction in food intake (FI) and body weight (BW). This is evidence for new functions of the previously characterized gut peptide PYY3-36 suggesting a potential simple and efficient alternative therapeutic approach for the treatment of obesity: Andres Acosta1, Maria D. Hurtado1, Oleg Gorbatyuk, Michael La Sala, David Duncan, George Aslanidi, Martha Campbell-Thompson, Lei Zhang, Herbert Herzog, Antonis Voutetakis, Bruce J. Baum, Sergei Zolotukhin. Salivary PYY: A Putative Bypass to Satiety. PLoS ONE 6(10): e26137. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0026137. Received: July 22, 2011; Accepted: September 20, 2011; Published: October 10, 2011...Rabbit anti-Y2R (Dilution: 1:3000) using TSA...

Images: A) Immunolocalization of Y2R-positive cells in the hippocampus of C57Bl/6J mouse (WT), a (+) control. (B) Immunolocalization of Y2R in the tongue epithelia of Y2R KO mouse, a (-) control. VEG – von Ebner's gland. (C) Immunolocalization of Y2R-positive cells in the CV area of the tongue of a C57Bl/6J mouse. (D) close-up of (C). (E), and (F) close ups of (D), top and bottom rectangles, respectively. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0026137.g003

These findings could prove a first step in identifying new targets for obesity fighting therapies. Increasing PYY salivary output would provide satiety with less food intake. This would give a whole new perspective on dieting. If we are satsified with less food intake is this really dieting? Stay tuned.

Saturday, December 03, 2011

Opioid Addiction During Pregnancy-Implications for Neuro-development

I would like to thank Dr. Carmen Sato-Bigbee, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, for kindly sharing this important study. The publication also references use of our Mu Opioid and Nociceptin/Orphanin FQ Receptor Antibodies: Andrew C. Eschenroeder, Allison A. Vestal-Laborde, Emilse S. Sanchez, Susan E. Robinson, Carmen Sato-Bigbee. Oligodendrocyte responses to buprenorphine uncover novel and opposing roles of μ-opioid- and nociceptin/orphanin FQ receptors in cell development: Implications for drug addiction treatment during pregnancy. Glia Volume 60, Issue 1, pages 125–136, January 2012.

Highlights: Oligodendrocytes are responsible for making myelin in the CNS. The authors have shown We have shown previously that rat brain myelination is significantly altered by buprenorphine, an opioid analogue currently used in clinical trials for managing pregnant opioid addicts. In this study, perinatal exposure to low levels of this drug induced accelerated and increased expression of myelin basic proteins (MBPs), cellular and myelin components that are markers of mature oligodendrocytes. In contrast, supra-therapeutic drug doses delayed MBP brain expression and resulted in a decreased number of myelinated axons. We have now found that this biphasic-dose response to buprenorphine can be attributed to the participation of both the l-opioid receptor (MOR) and the nociceptin/orphanin FQ receptor (NOP receptor) in the oligodendrocytes. This is the first study showing the potential role of the NOP receptor in myelination.
High levels of opiate exposure could negatively disrupt the normal interplay between these two systems altering the developmental pattern of brain myelination. Understanding this pathway, could help researchers find ways to favorably modulate myelination and protect neuro-development of fetuses exposed to high levels of opiates during pregnancy.

Related Data:
Direct treatment of immature oligodendrocytes with buprenorphine alters MBP expression in a dose-specific manner. Cells isolated from 9-day-old rat brains were incubated for 4 days in CDM with or without 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, and 3.0 lM buprenorphine. MBP levels were determined by western blotting using b-actin levels as loading controls. Figures correspond to representative experiments. Results in the bar graph are expressed as percentage of controls (0 lM buprenorphine) 6 SEM from five experiments and correspond to the combined scanning of the four major MBP isoforms. **P <0.005 and ***P<0.0001.
Pre-oligodendrocytes express both MOR and the NOP receptor. Cells isolated from 9-day-old rat brain were allowed to fully attachon the culture plates by overnight incubation and stained by double
immunocytochemistry with O4 (green) together with anti-MOR or anti-NOP receptor antibodies (red). Scale bar: 20 lm. The western blot shows MOR and NOP receptor expression in two different samples of developing oligodendrocytes directly isolated from 9-day-old rat brains.

I will be posting future studies investigating the molecular mechanisms by which buprenorphine and methadone affect myelination and neuron-glial interactions. These should provide deeper understanding into these developmental processes and new and better strategies for the managing of both pregnant addicts and drug addiction in adolescence.