Monday, June 28, 2010

Otx2 (Orthodenticle Homeobox 2) and Parkinson's Disease

Our Otx2 Antibody is a potent marker for Human, Mouse and Rat Midbrain Dopamanergic Progenitors.

This is confirmed by a recent publication by Dr. Ole Isaacson et al:

Chee Yeun Chung, Pawel Licznerski, Kambiz N. Alavian, Antonio Simeone, Zhicheng Lin, Eden Martin, Jeffery Vance and Ole Isacson. The transcription factor orthodenticle homeobox 2 influences axonal projections and vulnerability of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Brain Advance Access published online on June 23, 2010 Brain, doi:10.1093/brain/awq142... anti-Otx2 (Neuromics, 1:500)...

Abstract: Two adjacent groups of midbrain dopaminergic neurons, A9 (substantia nigra pars compacta) and A10 (ventral tegmental area), have distinct projections and exhibit differential vulnerability in Parkinson’s disease. Little is known about transcription factors that influence midbrain dopaminergic subgroup phenotypes or their potential role in disease. Here, we demonstrate elevated expression of the transcription factor orthodenticle homeobox 2 in A10 dopaminergic neurons of embryonic and adult mouse, primate and human midbrain. Overexpression of orthodenticle homeobox 2 using lentivirus increased levels of known A10 elevated genes, including neuropilin 1, neuropilin 2, slit2 and adenylyl cyclase-activating peptide in both MN9D cells and ventral mesencephalic cultures, whereas knockdown of endogenous orthodenticle homeobox 2 levels via short hairpin RNA reduced expression of these genes in ventral mesencephalic cultures. Lack of orthodenticle homeobox 2 in the ventral mesencephalon of orthodenticle homeobox 2 conditional knockout mice caused a reduction of midbrain dopaminergic neurons and selective loss of A10 dopaminergic projections. Orthodenticle homeobox 2 overexpression protected dopaminergic neurons in ventral mesencephalic cultures from Parkinson’s disease-relevant toxin, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium, whereas downregulation of orthodenticle homeobox 2 using short hairpin RNA increased their susceptibility. These results show that orthodenticle homeobox 2 is important for establishing subgroup phenotypes of post-mitotic midbrain dopaminergic neurons and may alter neuronal vulnerability.

Image: Characterization of the human neuroectodermal precursors. Otx2 Staining of forebrain-midbrain rosettes (dilution 1:1000).

Related Reagents to Consider:

Friday, June 25, 2010

Nestin as a Marker for Astrocytomas

I recently highlighted the growing parade of pubs referencing use of our reagents for Cancer Research.

I would like to add a new one. Angogenesis of Astrocytomas show stem like properties. This makes our Nestin Antibodies excellent markers.

J H Tchaicha, A K Mobley, M G Hossain, K D Aldape and J H McCarty. A mosaic mouse model of astrocytoma identifies αvβ8 integrin as a negative regulator of tumor angiogenesis. Oncogene , (7 June 2010) doi:10.1038/onc.2010.199...chicken anti-Nestin IgY (Neuromics, Edina, MN, USA)...

Abstract: Angiogenesis involves a complex set of cell–cell and cell–extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions that coordinately promote and inhibit blood vessel growth and sprouting. Although many factors that promote angiogenesis have been characterized, the identities and mechanisms of action of endogenous inhibitors of angiogenesis remain unclear. Furthermore, little is known about how cancer cells selectively circumvent the actions of these inhibitors to promote pathological angiogenesis, a requisite event for tumor progression. Using mosaic mouse models of the malignant brain cancer, astrocytoma, we report that tumor cells induce pathological angiogenesis by suppressing expression of the ECM protein receptor αvβ8 integrin. Diminished integrin expression in astrocytoma cells leads to reduced activation of latent TGFβs, resulting in impaired TGFβ receptor signaling in tumor-associated endothelial cells. These data reveal that astrocytoma cells manipulate their angiogenic balance by selectively suppressing αvβ8 integrin expression and function. Finally, these results show that an adhesion and signaling axis normally involved in developmental brain angiogenesis is pathologically exploited in adult brain tumors.

Related Reagents:

Nestin Mouse Monoclonal-Cat#:MO15012

Nestin-Mouse Monoclonal-Cat#:MO15056

Nestin-Goat Polyclonal

Stem Cell Research Reagents

Friday, June 11, 2010

Cancer Reagents Pubs-Capabilities Update

We continue to grow our capaibilities and abilities to serve Cancer Researchers.

We recently highlighted the potency of our i-Fect ™ siRNA transfection kits for deliveriny siRNA to glioblastomas.

Joseph George, Naren L. Banik, Swapan K. Ray. Combination of hTERT Knockdown and IFN-γ Treatment Inhibited Angiogenesis and Tumor Progression in Glioblastoma. Clin Cancer Res 2009;15(23):7186–95

...with i-Fect transfection reagent (Neuromics) to obtain 5 μg DNA/10 μL of injection volume...

Here're several new publications highlighting use of our Cancer Research Antibodies:

Mauricio P. Pinto, Melanie M. Badtke, Michelle L. Dudevoir, J. Chuck Harrell, Britta M. Jacobsen and Kathryn B. Horwitz. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Secreted by Activated Stroma Enhances Angiogenesis and Hormone-Independent Growth of Estrogen Receptor–Positive Breast Cancer. Cancer Research 70, 2655, April 1, 2010. Published Online First March 23, 2010; doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-09-4373 © 2010 American Association for Cancer Research.

...Phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK) was assayed by immunohistochemistry (rabbit polyclonal; Neuromics). Statistical analyses Data were analyzed with GraphPad software using either Student's t test or ANOVA followed by a Tukey's...

Nina Bergelin, Christoffer Löf, Sonja Balthasar, Veronica Kalhori, and Kid Törnquist. S1P1, and VEGFR-2 Form a Signaling Complex with Extracellularly Regulated Kinase 1/2 and Protein Kinase C-alpha Regulating ML-1 Thyroid Carcinoma Cell Migration. This version published online on May 25, 2010. Endocrinology, doi:10.1210/en.2009-1387

...conjugated goat antirabbit from Bio-Rad Laboratories (Hercules, CA). Rearranged in transformation (RET) antibody was from Neuromics (Edina, MN). Secondary antibodies (Alexa Fluor goat antirabbit 568 and goat antimouse 488) for immunocytochemistry were obtained from MolecularProbes...

New Markers:

Ogg1, Biotinylated
Ogg1, HRP Conjugated

Image: HeLa cells stained with Pin-1 (1:1,000 dilution, green) and fibrillarin (red). Pin-1 stains the nuclear matrix and, much more faintly, the cytoplasm. The fibrillarin antibody marks nucleoli.

Sunday, June 06, 2010

STEMEZ(TM) hNP1 Cells and Neuroprotection Studies

Neuroinflammation has been shown to be a potent negative regulator of stem cell and progenitor cell proliferation in the neurogenic regions of the brain.

Here researchers used our STEMEZ(TM) hNP1 Human Neural Progenitors Expansion Kit to study the neuroprotection capabilities of a propriety nutraceutical formulation.

Adam D. Bachstetter, Jennifer Jernberg, Andrea Schlunk, Jennifer L. Vila, Charles Hudson, Michael J. Cole, R. Douglas Shytle, Jun Tan, Paul R. Sanberg, Cyndy D. Sanberg, Cesario Borlongan, Yuji Kaneko, Naoki Tajiri, Carmelina Gemma, Paula C. Bickford. Spirulina Promotes Stem Cell Genesis and Protects against LPS Induced Declines in Neural Stem Cell Proliferation. PLoS ONE 5(5): e10496. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0010496.

Abstract:Adult stem cells are present in many tissues including, skin, muscle, adipose, bone marrow, and in the brain. Neuroinflammation has been shown to be a potent negative regulator of stem cell and progenitor cell proliferation in the neurogenic regions of the brain. Recently we demonstrated that decreasing a key neuroinflammatory cytokine IL-1β in the hippocampus of aged rats reversed the age-related cognitive decline and increased neurogenesis in the age rats. We also have found that nutraceuticals have the potential to reduce neuroinflammation, and decrease oxidative stress. The objectives of this study were to determine if spirulina could protect the proliferative potential of hippocampal neural progenitor cells from an acute systemic inflammatory insult of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). To this end, young rats were fed for 30 days a control diet or a diet supplemented with 0.1% spirulina. On day 28 the rats were given a single i.p. injection of LPS (1 mg/kg). The following day the rats were injected with BrdU (50 mg/kg b.i.d. i.p.) and were sacrificed 24 hours after the first injection of BrdU. Quantification of the BrdU positive cells in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus demonstrated a decrease in proliferation of the stem/progenitor cells in the hippocampus as a result of the LPS insult. Furthermore, the diet supplemented with spirulina was able to negate the LPS induced decrease in stem/progenitor cell proliferation. In a second set of studies we examined the effects of spirulina either alone or in combination with a proprietary formulation (NT-020) of blueberry, green tea, vitamin D3 and carnosine on the function of bone marrow and CD34+ cells in vitro. Spirulina had small effects on its own and more than additive effects in combination with NT-020 to promote mitochondrial respiration and/or proliferation of these cells in culture. When examined on neural stem cells in culture spirulina increased proliferation at baseline and protected against the negative influence of TNFα to reduce neural stem cell proliferation. These results support the hypothesis that a diet enriched with spirulina and other nutraceuticals may help protect the stem/progenitor cells from insults. Figure 7. Spirulina increases proliferation of human neural stem cells in vitro and protects against a TNFα insult.

Figure: Human neural progenitors grown under proliferation conditions were assessed by MTT assay (A) or BrdU (B) for the effects of spirulina (125 ng/ml) or NT-020 (500 ng/ml) or the two treatments combined in the presence or absence of TNFα (20 ng/ml) for 72 hours. (A) The MTT assay shows that spirulina alone or NT-020 alone increase proliferation; surprising, the in combination proliferation is decrease compare to control ** p less tan 0.005.

Related Reagents:

STEMEZ(TM) hNP1 Human Neural
Progenitors Expansion Kit

Primary Neurons and Astrocytes-Primary
human, rat and mouse neurons and astrocytes

Neuron/Glial Marker Antibodies

Neurotrophins and Growth Factor

Stem Cell Research Reagents
cells, antibodies, proteins, media and FACS kits.