Friday, February 24, 2012

TRPV1, Gut Inflammation and Pain

"Where there's smoke there's fire" or in this study, where there's inflammation there is pain: Robert P. Watson, Elliot Lilley, Moh Panesar, Gurdip Bhalay, Steven Langridge, Shin-Shay Tian, Conor McClenaghan, Anna Ropenga, Fanning Zeng, Mark S. Nash. Increased prokineticin 2 expression in gut inflammation: role in visceral pain and intestinal ion transport. Neurogastroenterology & Motility. Volume 24, Issue 1, pages 65–e12, January 2012....Formalin-fixed, wax-embedded tissues with no overt signs of pathology were purchased from Asterand (Detroit, MI, USA); informed consent had been sought and received from all donors. All tissues were used in accordance with the Human Tissue Act 2004 (UK)...guinea pig anti-TRPV1 antibody (GP14100 – Neuromics, Edina, MN, USA)...

Images: expression of prokineticin receptors in human and rat tissues. (A) Immunohistochemical analysis of PKR1 expression in the myenteric and submucosal ganglia of human stomach, ileum, and colon. Pkr1 (B) and Pkr2(C) expression in a range of human tissues determined using qRT-PCR. (D, E) Immunohistochemical of PKR1 distribution in rat DRG showing an absence of expression in large diameter, NF200 positive neurons (D), but co-expression with TRPV1 in presumptive nociceptive sensory neurons (E). (F) Distribution of Pkr2 mRNA by in situ hybridization in rat DRG. The IHC/ISH images shown are representative of the data obtained from n = 3 donors/animals.

Key Results Prok2 gene expression was up-regulated in biopsy samples from ulcerative colitis patients, and similar elevations were observed in rodent models of inflammatory colitis. Prokineticin receptor 1 (PKR1) was localized to the enteric neurons and extrinsic sensory neurons, whereas Pkr2 expression was restricted to sensory ganglia. In rats, PROK2-increased intracellular calcium levels in cultured enteric and dorsal root ganglia neurons, which was blocked by Compound 3. Moreover, PROK2 acting at prokineticin receptors stimulated intrinsic neuronally mediated ion transport in rat ileal mucosa. In vivo, Compound 3 reversed intracolonic mustard oil-induced referred allodynia and TNBS-induced visceral hypersensitivity, but not non-inflammatory, stress-induced visceral pain.

Check out our Pain and Inflammation Research Antibodies.

Wednesday, February 15, 2012

Guinea Pig P2X3 Antibody-It's Back!

Our Guinea Pig P2X3 Antibody has historically been one of our most popular Purinergic Receptor Antibodies. It has been frequently cited in publications.

We exhausted our supply of the antibody in the spring of 2011 and it took us many rounds with multiple partners and a degree of disappointing results. Well our efforts have finally yielded the positive testing results required to again provide users this important antibody. Here're related images from our internal testing:
P2X3 staining in rat Dorsal Root Ganglia.
P2X3 in rat Dorsal Horn.
Check out our Purinergic Receptor Antibodies today.

Sunday, February 12, 2012

Building Muscle-TRIM32

What causes Muscular Dystrophies like Limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2H (LGMD2H)? Here researchers demonstrate for the first time that TRIM32 is expressed in the skeletal muscle stem cell lineage of adult mice, and that in the absence of TRIM32, myogenic differentiation is disrupted. Moreover, they show that the ubiquitin ligase TRIM32 controls this process through the regulation of c-Myc, a similar mechanism to that previously observed in neural progenitors. Importantly, they show that loss of TRIM32 function induces a LGMD2H-like phenotype and strongly affects muscle regeneration in vivo. These studies implicate that the loss of TRIM32 results in dysfunctional muscle stem cells which could contribute to the development of LGMD2H: Nicklas S , Otto A , Wu X , Miller P , Stelzer S , et al. 2012 TRIM32 Regulates Skeletal Muscle Stem Cell Differentiation and Is Necessary for Normal Adult Muscle Regeneration. PLoS ONE 7(1): e30445. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0030445.

Stem Cell Markers  like PAX7 are important for types of studies. PAX7 is a marker for muscle progenitors or stem cells. If these cells fail to differentiate the level of PAX7 expression will remain high. MyoD is an indicator for successfully differentiating cells. As a consequence, MyoD expression levels increase within the cell and the ratio of Pax7:MyoD is reduced, thus inhibiting proliferation and inducing differentiation through Myogenin expression. In the absence of TRIM32, this balance of Pax7:MyoD is dysregulated, because degradation of c-Myc is not initiated, MyoD levels do not increase and Myogenin expression is not activated.

Figure . Differentiation is strongly reduced in satellite cell progeny on TRIM32−/− myofibers. (a), (c) and (e) Immunostainings of satellite cells on freshly isolated myofibers from wild type (+/+) and TRIM32−/− (−/−) mice cultured for 24 h (a), 48 h (c) and 72 h (e) and labelled with the indicated markers (upper grey boxes). (b), (d) and (f) Diagrams showing the relative frequency of Pax7+/MyoD− cells on fibers cultured for 24 h (b), Pax7+/Myogenin− cells on fibers cultured for 48 h (d) and Pax7−/Myogenin+ cells on fibers cultured for 72 h (f). In all cases cells on myofibers from wild type mice and TRIM32−/− mice are compared. (mean ± std; *P<0.001 compared to wild type).

Check out our more publications referencing use of our PAX7.

Saturday, February 04, 2012

Neurotrophins-Growth Factors Update

Our Neurotrophins and Growth Factor Antibodies and Recombinant Proteins help support a wide span of research areas. These areas include: neuroscience, immunology, cardiac disease research and cancer.

I would like to update you on recent publications highlighting use of some of these reagents: Aiko Sada, Kazuteru Hasegawa, Pui Han Pin, Yumiko Saga. NANOS2 Acts Downstream of Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Signaling to Suppress Differentiation of Spermatogonial Stem Cells. DOI: 10.1002/stem.790. Copyright © 2011 AlphaMed Press...anti-GFRA1 (1:200, Neuromics, Edina, MN)...

Images: Ngn3-Cre targets GFRA1-negative cells. (A-F): At P7, Rosa-YFP; Ngn3-Cre double transgenic testes were immunostained with the indicated markers. Most of YFP-positive spermatogonia (Ngn3-lineage cells) were not stained with GFRA1. Scale bar, 100 μm. (G): Quantification of YFP-positive cells per GFRA1-positive cells at P7 and 6 weeks (N=3).

Karine Bédard, Stéphanie Segura, Stéphanie Mahaut, Catherine Tardivel, Guylaine Ferland, Bruno Lebrun, Pierrette Gaudreau. Effects of aging and caloric restriction on brainstem satiety center signals in rats. Mechanisms of Ageing and Development. serum and 0.3% Triton-X-100) (Sigma–Aldrich), overnight at 4 °C with chicken anti-rat BDNF antibody (Neuromics, Edina, MN; diluted 1/200 in blocking buffer), rinsed 3× 10 min in fresh PBS and incubated for 2 h, in the dark...

Tali Kobilo, Qing-Rong Liu, Kriti Gandhi, Mohammed Mughal, Yavin Shaham and Henriette van Praag. Running is the neurogenic and neurotrophic stimulus in environmental enrichment. doi: 10.1101/lm.2283011. Learn. Mem. 2011. 18: 605-609... human recombinant BDNF (0.1 µg) monomer (Neuromics)...

Masamichi Shinoda, Masatake Asano, Daisuke Omagari, Kuniya Honda, Suzuro Hitomi, Ayano Katagiri, and Koichi Iwata. Nerve Growth Factor Contribution via Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 to Ectopic Orofacial Pain. The Journal of Neuroscience, 11 May 2011, 31(19):7145-7155; doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0481-11.2011....expression immunohistochemically in TG- anti-p75 goat antibody (1:200; Neuromics)...

Images: Mandibular nerve fibers were labeled by β-NGF which was administrated into the lower lip with CFA (A) or saline (F). On day 1 after β-NGF administration into the lower lip with CFA or saline, β-NGF-positive whisker pad or lower lip TG neurons defined by FG or DiI, respectively. B, G, β-NGF-positive TG neurons. C, H, DiI-labeled TG neurons. D, I, FG-labeled TG neurons. E, J, DiI- and FG-labeled β-NGF-positive TG neurons. Mandibular nerve fibers (K) and TG neurons (L) on day 1 after labeled BSA administration into the lower lip with CFA. Open arrow, β-NGF-positive nerve fibers. Arrow, DiI-labeled β-NGF-positive TG neurons. Arrowhead, FG-labeled β-NGF-positive TG neurons. Scale bar, 50 μm. M, Frequency of β-NGF-positive neurons in FG- or DiI-labeled TG neurons after CFA or saline injection into the lower lip (n = 5 in CFA-injected group; n = 4 in saline-injected group; Student's t test).

F. R. Carreño, J. D. Walch, M. Dutta, T. P. Nedungadi, J. T. Cunningham. Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor-Tyrosine Kinase B Pathway Mediates NMDA Receptor NR2B Subunit Phosphorylation in the Supraoptic Nuclei Following Progressive Dehydration. Journal of Neuroendocrinology. Volume 23, Issue 10, pages 894–905, October 2011. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2826.2011.02209.x...TrkB receptor (Neuromics, Edina, MN, USA)...

Jie Shen, Yoko Ishii, Guihua Xu, Thanh Chung Dang, Takeru Hamashima, Takako Matsushima, Seiji Yamamoto, Yuichi Hattori, Yusuke Takatsuru, Junichi Nabekura and Masakiyo Sasahara. PDGFR-β as a positive regulator of tissue repair in a mouse model of focal cerebral ischemia. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism , (28 September 2011). doi:10.1038/jcbfm.2011.136...goat polyclonal anti-PDGFR-β antibody (1:100; Neuromics, Edina)...

Thomas Karsten Kilvaer, Andrej Valkov, Sveinung W. Sorbye, Tom Donnem, Eivind Smeland, Roy Martin Bremnes,and Lill-Tove Busund. Platelet-Derived Growth Factors in Non-GIST Soft-Tissue Sarcomas Identify a Subgroup of Patients with Wide Resection Margins and Poor Disease-Specific Survival. Volume 2010 (2010), Article ID 751304, 10 pages doi:10.1155/2010/751304...PDGF-CC (goat polyclonal; GT15151; Neuromics; 1 : 80)...

I will keep you posted on new developments.

Friday, February 03, 2012

Aging-Caloric Restriction and BDNF-Leptin

As we age, selective BDNF receptors increase in the the dorsal vagal complex (DVC), the brainstem center mediating the satiety reflex. Aging also affects the suppressor of cytokine signaling-3. This results in abnormal responses to BDNF and Leptin Signaling.

In this study, the investigators found that by restricting calories in rats, DVC BDNF immunoreactive concentrations were elevated and resulting in satiety threshold stability.  This indicates functional desensitization of the DVC to these signals: Karine Bédard, Stéphanie Segura, Stéphanie Mahaut, Catherine Tardivel, Guylaine Ferland, Bruno Lebrun, Pierrette Gaudreau. Effects of aging and caloric restriction on brainstem satiety center signals in rats. Mechanisms of Ageing and Development.

The authors used our BDNF Antibody to determine expression in the DVC.....goat serum and 0.3% Triton-X-100) (Sigma–Aldrich), overnight at 4 °C with chicken anti-rat BDNF antibody (Neuromics, Edina, MN; diluted 1/200 in blocking buffer), rinsed 3× 10 min in fresh PBS and incubated for 2 h, in the dark...

These findings could lead to potential therapies based on modulating BDNF expression in the DVC.