Our Opioid Receptor Antibodies continue to be referenced in publications by Pain Researchers. Many of these studies provide a greater understanding of how opioids alleviate pain and what modulates this ability.
For example, the capacity of opioids to alleviate inflammatory pain is negatively regulated by the glutamate-binding N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). This study drills down into the specifics of this regulation and references use of Neuromics' MOR1C Antibody: María Rodríguez-Muñoz, Pilar Sánchez-Blázquez, Ana Vicente-Sánchez, Esther Berrocoso and Javier Garzón. María Rodríguez-Muñoz, Pilar Sánchez-Blázquez, Ana Vicente-Sánchez, Esther Berrocoso and Javier Garzón. The Mu-Opioid Receptor and the NMDA Receptor Associate in PAG Neurons: Implications in Pain Control. Neuropsychopharmacology , (3 August 2011) | doi:10.1038/npp.2011.155.
Abstract: The capacity of opioids to alleviate inflammatory pain is negatively regulated by the glutamate-binding N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). Increased activity of this receptor complicates the clinical use of opioids to treat persistent neuropathic pain. Immunohistochemical and ultrastructural studies have demonstrated the coexistence of both receptors within single neurons of the CNS, including those in the mesencephalic periaqueductal gray (PAG), a region that is implicated in the opioid control of nociception. We now report that mu-opioid receptors (MOR) and NMDAR NR1 subunits associate in the postsynaptic structures of PAG neurons. Morphine disrupts this complex by protein kinase-C (PKC)-mediated phosphorylation of the NR1 C1 segment and potentiates the NMDAR–CaMKII, pathway that is implicated in morphine tolerance. Inhibition of PKC, but not PKA or GRK2, restored the MOR–NR1 association and rescued the analgesic effect of morphine as well. The administration of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid separated the MOR–NR1 complex, increased MOR Ser phosphorylation, reduced the association of the MOR with G-proteins, and diminished the antinociceptive capacity of morphine. Inhibition of PKA, but not PKC, CaMKII, or GRK2, blocked these effects and preserved morphine antinociception. Thus, the opposing activities of the MOR and NMDAR in pain control affect their relation within neurons of structures such as the PAG. This finding could be exploited in developing bifunctional drugs that would act exclusively on those NMDARs associated with MORs.
I will continue to post these studies. They give hope for pain sufferers as many propose potential new druggable targets.
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