Sunday, April 14, 2013

P2X3 Receptors and Migraine

P2X3 Receptors of Trigeminal Sensory Neurons and Familial Hemiplegic Migraine Type 1 (FHM-1).

Our P2X Receptor Markers continue to be used in interesting and novel ways. Here researchers use our P2X3 Receptor Antibody to study expression using primary rat ganlia cultures: Swathi K. Hullugundi,Michel D. Ferrari, Arn M. J. M. van den Maagdenberg, Andrea Nistri. Andrea Nistri. The Mechanism of Functional Up-Regulation of P2X3 Receptors of Trigeminal Sensory Neurons in a Genetic Mouse Model of Familial Hemiplegic Migraine Type 1 (FHM-1). PLoS ONE 8(4): e60677. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0060677

Abstract: A knock-in (KI) mouse model of FHM-1 expressing the R192Q missense mutation of the Cacna1a gene coding for the α1 subunit of CaV2.1 channels shows, at the level of the trigeminal ganglion, selective functional up-regulation of ATP -gated P2X3 receptors of sensory neurons that convey nociceptive signals to the brainstem. Why P2X3 receptors are constitutively more responsive, however, remains unclear as their membrane expression and TRPV1 nociceptor activity are the same as in wildtype (WT) neurons. Using primary cultures of WT or KI trigeminal ganglia, we investigated whether soluble compounds that may contribute to initiating (or maintaining) migraine attacks, such as TNFα, CGRP, and BDNF, might be responsible for increasing P2X3 receptor responses. Exogenous application of TNFα potentiated P2X3 receptor-mediated currents of WT but not of KI neurons, most of which expressed both the P2X3 receptor and the TNFα receptor TNFR2. However, sustained TNFα neutralization failed to change WT or KI P2X3 receptor currents. This suggests that endogenous TNFα does not regulate P2X3 receptor responses. Nonetheless, on cultures made from both genotypes, exogenous TNFα enhanced TRPV1 receptor-mediated currents expressed by a few neurons, suggesting transient amplification of TRPV1 nociceptor responses. CGRP increased P2X3 receptor currents only in WT cultures, although prolonged CGRP receptor antagonism or BDNF neutralization reduced KI currents to WT levels. Our data suggest that, in KI trigeminal ganglion cultures, constitutive up-regulation of P2X3 receptors probably is already maximal and is apparently contributed by basal CGRP and BDNF levels, thereby rendering these neurons more responsive to extracellular ATP.

Images: Examples of TNFR2 and P2X3 co-exexpression in (wildtype) WT and R192Q (knockin) KI neurons. Left panel shows P2X3 expression (green), and right panel shows TNFR2 staining (red). B, Histograms quantifying % of cells co-expressing TNFR2 and P2X3: both WT and KI cultures show similar TNFR2 and P2X3 co-expression. N = 3 independent experiments (6 mice). C, Representative traces of currents induced by application of α,β-meATP (10 µM, 2 s) to WT or R192Q KI neurons in control conditions or after 4 h TNFα application. D, Histograms show average peak amplitudes of P2X3 receptor-mediated currents: WT control (open bar), n = 30; WT TNFα (stippled bar), n = 38; KI control (grey bar), n = 34; KI TNFα (stippled gray bar), n = 34; ** = p<0 .006="" i="" nbsp="" p="">doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0060677.g001.

Understanding the interplay between TNFR2 and P2X3 could lead to a better understanding of the root causes of migraines. This could open up yet more potential drug targets for this insidious condition.

Check out these related reagent categories:
All Purinergic Receptor Antibodies
Pain and Inflammation Research Antibodies 
Neurotransmission Research Antibodies
Primary Neurons and Astrocytes-Primary human, rat and mouse neurons and astrocytes

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