Wednesday, September 22, 2010

Glutaredoxin 2 prevents aggregation of mutant SOD1

Our PTEN-induced kinase, PINK1 or PARK6 Antibody is an excellent marker for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and Parkinson's Disease (PD) researchers.

Here's  new publication referencing use of this antibody:  Alberto Ferri, Paolo Fiorenzo, Monica Nencini, Mauro Cozzolino, Maria Grazia Pesaresi, Cristiana Valle, Sara Sepe, Sandra Moreno, and Maria Teresa Carrì. Glutaredoxin 2 prevents aggregation of mutant SOD1 in mitochondria and abolishes its toxicity.
Hum. Mol. Genet., first published on Sep 20, 2010 as doi: doi:10.1093/hmg/ddq383

Vulnerability of motoneurons in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) arises from a combination of several mechanisms, including protein misfolding and aggregation, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage. Protein aggregates are found in motoneurons in models for ALS linked to a mutation in the gene coding for Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) and in ALS patients as well. Aggregation of mutant SOD1 in the cytoplasm and/or into mitochondria has been repeatedly proposed as a main culprit for the degeneration of motoneurons. It is, however, still debated whether SOD1 aggregates represent a cause, a correlate or a consequence of processes leading to cell death. We have exploited the ability of glutaredoxins (Grxs) to reduce mixed disulfides to protein thiols either in the cytoplasm and in the IMS (Grx1) or in the mitochondrial matrix (Grx2) as a tool for restoring a correct redox environment and preventing the aggregation of mutant SOD1. Here we show that the overexpression of Grx1 increases the solubility of mutant SOD1 in the cytosol but does not inhibit mitochondrial damage and apoptosis induced by mutant SOD1 in neuronal cells (SH-SY5Y) or in immortalized motoneurons (NSC-34). Conversely, the overexpression of Grx2 increases the solubility of mutant SOD1 in mitochondria, interferes with mitochondrial fragmentation by modifying the expression pattern of proteins involved in mitochondrial dynamics, preserves mitochondrial function and strongly protects neuronal cells from apoptosis. The toxicity of mutant SOD1, therefore, mostly arises from mitochondrial dysfunction and rescue of mitochondrial damage may represent a promising therapeutic strategy.
Related Reagents:
PARK2 Co-regulated (PACRG)
PARK7 (DJ-1)
LRRK2 (PARK8)                        
Neurodegenerative Disease Research Antibodies                          

Neurodegenerative Disease Research Proteins
Neurotransmission -Neurotransmission Research Antibody Categories                         
Neurotrophins and Growth Factor Antibodies
Neuron-Glial Expressed-Includes Neurotrophin Proteins
Apoptosis Research Reagents-Apoptosis Categories-includes: detection kits, antibodies and proteins

Primary Neurons and Astrocytes -Primary human, rat and mouse neurons and astrocytes by Category


walt bayliss said...

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