Amol M. Patwardhan, Nathaniel A. Jeske, Theodore J. Price, Nikita Gamper, Armen N. Akopian, and Kenneth M. Hargreaves. The cannabinoid WIN 55,212-2 inhibits transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and evokes peripheral antihyperalgesia via calcineurin. PNAS 103 (July 2006): 11393-11398.
Figure: WIN activates calcineurin in TG neurons and dephosphorylates TRPV1. (A) Calcineurin subunits are coexpressed with TRPV1. The colocalization of calcineurin A subunit (Upper) and B subunit (Lower) with TRPV1isdemonstratedin the respective panels.(B) The effect of various treatments on the nuclear translocation of NFATc4 (calcineurin activation). Cultured TG neuronswere exposed to vehicle, ionomycin (1 M), capsaicin (1 M), WIN (25 M), or WINCAIP(25 M50 M), and immunohistochemistry was performed by using an antibody againstNFATc4. (C) Graphical representation of the percent of NFATc4 positive neurons showing nuclear translocation of NFAFc4 after treatment with VEHVEH, VEHWIN (25 M), CAIP (50 M)WIN, VEHCAP (1 M), or CAIP(50 M)CAP (n 4 independent cultures assessed by blinded observer; n 152–180 cells per condition; **, P<0.01,anovawith n="3">
Scientists grow retina cells from skin-derived stem cells - WASHINGTON - University of Wisconsin-Madison researchers have successfully grown multiple types of retina cells from two types of stem cells, giving new ho...
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