Thursday, November 18, 2010

Cancer-Induced Bone Pain

Bone crushing pain. This describes pain of the highest order. Our friend, Dr. Joseph Ghilardi, VAMC-Mpls. and his colleague, Dr. Patrick Manthy are finding the root causes of the intense and growing pain suffered by Cancer Victims. Here are highlights of a recent study:

Pain frequently accompanies cancer. What remains unclear is why this pain frequently becomes more severe and difficult to control with disease progression. Here we test the hypothesis that with disease progression, sensory nerve fibers that innervate the tumor-bearing tissue undergo a pathological sprouting and reorganization, which in other nonmalignant pathologies has been shown to generate and maintain chronic pain. Injection of canine prostate cancer cells into mouse bone induces a remarkable sprouting of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP+) and neurofilament 200 kDa (NF200+) sensory nerve fibers. Nearly all sensory nerve fibers that undergo sprouting also coexpress tropomyosin receptor kinase A (TrkA+). This ectopic sprouting occurs in sensory nerve fibers that are in close proximity to colonies of prostate cancer cells, tumor-associated stromal cells and newly formed woven bone, which together form sclerotic lesions that closely mirror the osteoblastic bone lesions induced by metastatic prostate tumors in humans. Preventive treatment with an antibody that sequesters nerve growth factor (NGF), administered when the pain and bone remodeling were first observed, blocks this ectopic sprouting and attenuates cancer pain. Interestingly, reverse transcription PCR analysis indicated that the prostate cancer cells themselves do not express detectable levels of mRNA coding for NGF. This suggests that the tumor-associated stromal cells express and release NGF, which drives the pathological reorganization of nearby TrkA+ sensory nerve fibers. Therapies that prevent this reorganization of sensory nerve fibers may provide insight into the evolving mechanisms that drive cancer pain and lead to more effective control of this chronic pain state.

Image: Image:Shows rat mixed neuron/glial cultures stained with mouse monoclonal antibody to neurofilament subunit NF-L clone 7D1 (green) and chicken antibody to neurofilament NF-H. This antibody binds primarily to the phosphorylated axonal forms of NF-H, in contrast to the NF-L antibody which stains both axonal and dendritic/perikaryal neurofilaments. The NF-L antibody therefore reveals a prominent cell body in green, while the surrounding axonal profiles are orange, since the are bound by both NF-L and the chicken NF-H antibody. Blue is a DNA stain. Protocol on data sheet.

 Juan M. Jimenez-Andrade, Aaron P. Bloom, James I. Stake, William G. Mantyh, Reid N. Taylor, Katie T. Freeman, Joseph R. Ghilardi, Michael A. Kuskowski, and Patrick W. Mantyh Pathological Sprouting of Adult Nociceptors in Chronic Prostate Cancer-Induced Bone Pain. J. Neurosci., Nov 2010; 30: 14649 - 14656 ; doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3300-10.2010
Here're several other pubs referencing use of our antibodies in studying bone cancer pain:

Kyle G. Halvorson, BA, Molly A. Sevcik, BA, Joseph R. Ghilardi, BS, BA, Lucy J. Sullivan, BA, Nathan J. Koewler, BS, Frieder Bauss, PhD, and Patrick W. Mantyh, PhD. Intravenous Ibandronate Rapidly Reduces Pain, Neurochemical Indices of Central Sensitization, Tumor Burden, and Skeletal Destruction in a Mouse Model of Bone Cancer. Published online 2008 April 14. doi: 10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2007.10.005
...pro-dynorphin (DYN, polyclonal guinea pig anti-rat, 1:1,000; Neuromics, Minneapolis, MN)...

Timothy K. Y. Kaan, Ping K. Yip, Sital Patel, Meirion Davies, Fabien Marchand, Debra A. Cockayne, Philip A. Nunn, Anthony H. Dickenson, Anthony P. D. W. Ford, Yu Zhong, Marzia Malcangio, and Stephen B. McMahon Systemic blockade of P2X3 and P2X2/3 receptors attenuates bone cancer pain behaviour in rats. Brain, September 2010; 133: 2549 - 2564.
......Slides were then incubated with rabbit anti-P2X3 (1:2000, Neuromics) and sheep anti-calcitonin gene-related peptide (1:1000, Biomol...anti-beta-III-tubulin (1:4000, Promega) and guinea pig anti-P2X3 (1:100, Neuromics). The next day, after three washes with phosphate-buffered......

I will keep you posted on this important topic.

2 comments:

plastic surgeon los angeles said...

Thanks for the post...many of us are not aware of this pain and the causes.Sometimes there is a lot of time in diagnosing the correct reason for pain in the body.
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Pete Shuster said...

Thank you for you insightful comments.