Monday, June 28, 2010

Otx2 (Orthodenticle Homeobox 2) and Parkinson's Disease

Our Otx2 Antibody is a potent marker for Human, Mouse and Rat Midbrain Dopamanergic Progenitors.

This is confirmed by a recent publication by Dr. Ole Isaacson et al:

Chee Yeun Chung, Pawel Licznerski, Kambiz N. Alavian, Antonio Simeone, Zhicheng Lin, Eden Martin, Jeffery Vance and Ole Isacson. The transcription factor orthodenticle homeobox 2 influences axonal projections and vulnerability of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Brain Advance Access published online on June 23, 2010 Brain, doi:10.1093/brain/awq142... anti-Otx2 (Neuromics, 1:500)...

Abstract: Two adjacent groups of midbrain dopaminergic neurons, A9 (substantia nigra pars compacta) and A10 (ventral tegmental area), have distinct projections and exhibit differential vulnerability in Parkinson’s disease. Little is known about transcription factors that influence midbrain dopaminergic subgroup phenotypes or their potential role in disease. Here, we demonstrate elevated expression of the transcription factor orthodenticle homeobox 2 in A10 dopaminergic neurons of embryonic and adult mouse, primate and human midbrain. Overexpression of orthodenticle homeobox 2 using lentivirus increased levels of known A10 elevated genes, including neuropilin 1, neuropilin 2, slit2 and adenylyl cyclase-activating peptide in both MN9D cells and ventral mesencephalic cultures, whereas knockdown of endogenous orthodenticle homeobox 2 levels via short hairpin RNA reduced expression of these genes in ventral mesencephalic cultures. Lack of orthodenticle homeobox 2 in the ventral mesencephalon of orthodenticle homeobox 2 conditional knockout mice caused a reduction of midbrain dopaminergic neurons and selective loss of A10 dopaminergic projections. Orthodenticle homeobox 2 overexpression protected dopaminergic neurons in ventral mesencephalic cultures from Parkinson’s disease-relevant toxin, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium, whereas downregulation of orthodenticle homeobox 2 using short hairpin RNA increased their susceptibility. These results show that orthodenticle homeobox 2 is important for establishing subgroup phenotypes of post-mitotic midbrain dopaminergic neurons and may alter neuronal vulnerability.

Image: Characterization of the human neuroectodermal precursors. Otx2 Staining of forebrain-midbrain rosettes (dilution 1:1000).

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