Thursday, December 17, 2015

Fibroblasts into Neurons

Via Activation of Oct4

We have a variety of stem cell, progenitor and neuron markers that are often referenced in publication. There represent a qualitative way to determine the state of stem cells as they differentiate.

Here're researchers take Fibroblasts and differentiate them into various progenitors. They were able to further differentiate these progenitors into astrocytes and neurons by: For neuronal differentiation, after 2 days of incubation with 20 nM reversine, cells were then treated with 0.5 μM all-trans-retinoic acid (RA) in serum-free DMEM/F-12 medium supplemented with the ITS for 2 days and switched into serum-free medium in the absence of RA with replacement of the medium every 2-3 days. 

Our NSE and GFAP were used to confirm this differentiation.
To learn more see: Xiangchen Li, Yu Guo, Yaxin Yao, Jinlian Hua, Yuehui Ma, Changqing Liu, Weijun Guan.Reversine Increases the Plasticity of Long-Term Cryopreserved Fibroblasts to Multipotent Progenitor Cells through Activation of Oct4. International Journal of Biological Sciences 2016; 12(1): 53-62. doi: 10.7150/ijbs.12199

Wednesday, December 09, 2015

Kv Channels and Pain Transmissiom

i-Fect TMis a Proven Tool for Gene Manipulation in Studying All Types of Pain

I previously posted on use of our i-Fect Transfection Kit to silence Kv Channels Receptors. This has enabled researchers to study the role of these receptors in vitro and in vivo (see:i-Fect™ Delivers Your siRNA Payload).

Sample Data

Figure: Figures. siRNA-mediated knockdown of Kv1.1 expression in thoracic DRG significantly increased gastric sensitivity in naive adult rats. (A) Western blots showed a significant decrease in Kv1.1 protein in thoracic DRG (T8–T12) after intrathecal treatment with Kv1.1 siRNA but not with control siRNA. siRNA treatment did not alter TrpV1 expression (n = 5 rats each; *P < .01 vs control siRNA). (B) Naive rats treated with Kv1.1 siRNA showed a significant increase in VMR to gastric distention (n = 5 rats each, compared with pretreatment baseline; *P < .05). (C) Treatment with control siRNA had no significant effect on gastric hypersensitivity. (D) Patch clamp recordings from freshly dissociated gastric DRG neurons from FD-like and PND 10 saline-treated littermate controls showed a significant decrease in rheobase in FD-like rats (*P < .05), and (E) a significant increase in the number of action potentials elicited by current injection at 3× the rheobase in gastric DRG neurons from FD-like rats (*P < .05). (F) Sample voltage vs time traces showing action potentials evoked at ×1, ×2, and ×3 rheobase. The patch clamp data were obtained from 16 cells from 5 PND 10 saline control rats and 19 cells from 5 FD-like rats

I am pleased to share with you a new reference detailing how research use i-Fect to optimize and deliver euchromatic histone-lysine N-methyltransferase-2 (G9a) siRNA. This brings the number of publications referencing use of our Transfection Kits to over 45: Geoffroy Laumet, Judit Garriga, Shao-Rui Chen, Yuhao Zhang, De-Pei Li, Trevor M Smith, Yingchun Dong, Jaroslav Jelinek, Matteo Cesaroni, Jean-Pierre Issa & Hui-Lin Pan G9a is essential for epigenetic silencing of K+channel genes in acute-to-chronic pain transition. Nature Neuroscience (2015) doi:10.1038/nn.4165.

The authors report: "Selective knockout of the gene encoding G9a in DRG neurons completely blocked K+ channel silencing and chronic pain development after nerve injury. Remarkably, RNA sequencing analysis revealed that G9a inhibition not only reactivated 40 of 42 silenced genes associated with K+ channels but also normalized 638 genes down- or upregulated by nerve injury."

I will continue to post here new and unique solutions and related referencing for our Gene Expression Analysis Tools.