Tuesday, August 20, 2013

Proud Distributor of RayBiotech's Antibody Arrays and ELISAs

Pioneer and Market Leader

I am pleased to announce we are a distribution partner for RayBiotech. The solutions we offer include Antibody Arrays and ELISA Kits. With these additions, you now have many options for the either the qualitative, semi-quantitative or quantitative measurement of protein expression. From single antibody pair ELISAs to multiplexed arrays. The arrays enable you to simultaneously analyze up to 80 cytokine, inflammatory response, growth factor or angiogenesis related proteins.

In this posting, I focus on our new C-Series Antibody Array Kits. The kits utilize the sandwich immunoassay principle, wherein a panel of capture antibodies is printed on a nitrocellulose membrane solid support (usualy 2.5 cm x 3 cm). The array membranes are processed similarly to a Western blot (chemiluminescent readout). Signals are then visualized on x-ray film or a digital image, allowing densitometry data collection and calculation of fold-changes for each detected protein. The entire procedure can be completed in 1 day, and is simple enough to permit even the novice researcher to successfully collect data with very few pitfalls and little or no optimization.

They are proven and frequently published. You can now analyze the protein expression in you assays for a fraction of the cost of tradition methods. Here's an example: Simona Giorgini, Daniela Trisciuoglio, Chiara Gabellini, Marianna Desideri, Laura Castellini, Cristina Colarossi, Uwe Zangemeister-Wittke, Gabriella Zupi and Donatella Del Bufalo. Modulation of bcl-xL in Tumor Cells Regulates Angiogenesis through CXCL8 Expression. doi: 10.1158/1541-7786.MCR-07-0088. Mol Cancer Res August 2007 5; 7

Figure: bcl-xL overexpression in ADF glioblastoma and M14 melanoma cells increases CXCL8 expression. Image of membranes from a protein array. Membranes are probed with CM from the (A) glioblastoma control (AN8) and bcl-xL–overexpressing (AXL42 and AXL74) clones and (B) melanoma control (Mneo) and bcl-xL–overexpressing (MXL12 and MXL90) clones. In the negative control (NEG), the CM is replaced with an appropriate mock buffer according to array protocol. The intensity of protein signals for each membrane was compared with the relative positive signals by densitometric analysis. C. Schematic representation of proangiogenic factors that can be detected by the use of the membrane. The CXCL8, TGF-1β, TIMP1, TIMP2, and VEGF protein signals (two spots) are indicated by red, blue, yellow, violet, and green rectangles, respectively, in each image....The Human Angiogenesis Antibody Array I (RayBiotech. Inc.) was used according to the manufacturer's protocol to evaluate the secretion of 20 angiogenic factors into the CM of the different lines. A schematic representation of the proangiogenic factors that may be detected by the use of the array has been reported in the above figure. Membranes spotted in duplicate with antibodies against angiogenic factors were blocked with blocking buffer and then were incubated overnight with CM. Next, membranes were washed with wash buffer, incubated with biotin-conjugated antibodies against proangiogenic factors, washed with wash buffer, and incubated with horseradish peroxidase–conjugated streptavidin. The signals on the membranes were detected by chemiluminescence. Membranes, blocking and wash buffer, and antibodies against proangiogenic factors were all provided with the kit. The intensity of protein signal (two spots for each protein) was compared with the relative positive signals by densitometric analysis.

Here's an excellent video that provides more detail on Antibody Array Kit capabililities:
I will continue to post information on new addition with related pubs and data.

Monday, August 12, 2013

A Method for 3D Immunostaining and Optical Imaging of the Mouse Brain

Demonstrated in Neural Progenitor Cells

We have proven and effective tools for delivering siRNA, shRNA and miRNA for gene expression analysis and measuring apoptosis in vivo.

We are pleased to introduce a new application for one of our neural progenitor markers. In this study our Chicken Nestin Antibody is used to stain these progenitors in dissected mouse brains: Gleave JA, Lerch JP, Henkelman RM, Nieman BJ (2013) A Method for 3D Immunostaining and Optical Imaging of the Mouse Brain Demonstrated in Neural Progenitor Cells. PLoS ONE 8(8): e72039. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0072039. 3D antibody staining of adult mouse brains: 1% PFA perfused adult mouse brains were removed from the skull and then divided by removing the cerebellum and separating the hemispheres if desired. The samples were immediately dehydrated in a gradient of methanol solutions to 100% methanol over the course of one day. Immediate dehydration is important to preserve the cellular morphology of the lightly-fixed brain. The samples then underwent freeze/thaw (one hour at –80°C/one hour at room temperature) four times. The samples were rehydrated in a gradient of methanol solutions to PBS over the course of one day. The samples were mildly digested for 5 minutes using 10 mg/ml of Proteinase K (Promega, WI, USA) and then thoroughly washed to remove any residual Proteinase K. Antigen retrieval was performed using a Histos5 histology microwave (Milestone, MI, USA) in 0.01 M sodium citrate buffer pH 6 on an antigen retrieval program (0–90°C 11min, 90–98°C 3min, 98°C 10min). The samples were cooled to RT and subsequently washed in PBS to remove excess buffer. From this point, all incubations were performed in the Histos5 histology microwave. The samples were incubated at 37°C for 48 hours in primary antibody diluted in 5% normal goat serum (Jackson ImmunoResearch, PA, USA), 5% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO, Fisher Scientific, Ontario, Canada), and 0.01% Triton X-100 (Bioshop Canada, Ontario, Canada). The samples were then washed at 37°C for 48 hours in 5% serum, 0.01% Triton X-100, replacing the solution once after 24 hours. Following this, the samples were incubated for 72 hours in secondary antibody diluted in 5% serum, 5% DMSO, and 0.01% Triton X-100. Finally, the samples were washed at 37°C for 48 hours in 0.01% Triton X-100, replacing the solution once after 24 hours.

Staining of single hemisphere brain samples using the described protocol for 3D imaging included the following: doublecortin (n = 4), GFAP (n = 4), nestin (n = 3), double stain of doublecortin and nestin (n = 1). Doublecortin was also used to stain a full mouse brain excluding the cerebellum (n = 2). Control samples were generated using pre-absorbed primary antibodies when possible by incubating the primary antibody with a blocking peptide for 30 minutes at room temperature prior to staining. If no peptide for the primary antibody was available, the staining procedure was performed in the control except that the primary antibody was omitted during the appropriate step.

Staining was performed with the following antibodies: rabbit anti-doublecortin (Abcam), goat anti-doublecortin and peptide (Santa Cruz Biotechnology) rabbit anti-GFAP (Dako), chicken anti-nestin (Neuromics), goat anti-rabbit alexafluor 546 (Invitrogen), goat anti-rabbit alexafluor 488 (Invitrogen), goat anti-rabbit alexafluor 647 (Invitrogen), goat anti-chicken alexafluor 546 (Invitrogen), goat anti-chicken alexafluor 488 (Invitrogen), donkey anti-goat alexafluor 546 (Invitrogen), donkey anti-goat alexafluor 488 (Invitrogen).

Images: Validation of 3D nestin staining. Cryosections cut from a stained brain hemisphere show nestin-positive cells (red; arrows, A). Some additional punctate fluorescence was present (arrowheads, A). The sections were re-probed with a secondary antibody (green; A) to highlight primary antibody left unbound by secondary antibody. No evidence of primary antibody left unbound by secondary antibody was found. Sections were also re-stained with both primary and secondary antibodies (B) to highlight primary-antibody antigen sites unoccupied. There is overlap of the original 3D nestin stain with the 2D re-stain (arrowheads). LV = Lateral ventricle, scalebars = 100 µm. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0072039.g003

The best news of all: This staining method is simple, using a combination of heat, time and specimen preparation procedures readily available, so that it can be easily implemented without the need for specialized equipment, making it accessible to most laboratories.

Tuesday, August 06, 2013

Healthy and Happy Neuron/Astrocytes Cultures

A Track Record of Customer Success

Neuromics is  recognized for the quality of  hNP1™ Human Neural Progenitor,  hN2™ Neuron Discovery Kits, E18 and E20 Rat Primary Neurons and E18 Rat Primary Astroglia. As the company owner, it is important that I keep my finger on the pulse of how well they work for each and every unique application. I personally follow up with each user and if there are any issues, we replace the cells once free of charge. Your success is critical to our growth.

I wanted to share with you recent references. These give and excellent snapshot of the exciting ways our cells can used. Alexzander Asea, Punit Kaur, Alexander Panossian, Karl Georg Wikman, Evaluation of molecular chaperons Hsp72 and neuropeptide Y as characteristic markers of adaptogenic activity of plant extracts. Phytomedicine, Available online 6 August 2013, ISSN 0944-7113, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2013.07.001
...using trypan blue exclusion test and routinely found to contain less than ;5% dead cells. Primary human neurons were purchased from Neuromics (Edina, MN)...

Images: Micropictograph of primary culture from micro-dissected hippocampus. (A) Neurons are round and healthy 1 h after plating on poly-d-lysine substrate. (B) Five days in culture, neurons remain healthy and have extended processes. Magnification 60×. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2013.07.001

Todd GK, Boosalis CA, Burzycki AA, Steinman MQ, Hester LD, et al. (2013) Towards Neuronal Organoids: A Method for Long-Term Culturing of High-Density Hippocampal Neurons. PLoS ONE 8(4): e58996. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0058996
... a protocol that allows for culturing of E18 hippocampal neurons at high densities for more than 120 days. These cultured hippocampal neurons are (i) well differentiated with high numbers of synapses, (ii) anchored securely to their substrate, (iii) have high levels of functional connectivity, and (iv) form dense multi-layered cellular networks. We propose that our culture methodology is likely to be effective for multiple neuronal subtypes–particularly those that can be grown in Neurobasal/B27 media. This methodology presents new avenues for long-term functional studies in neurons...
Xiugong Gao, Hsiuling Lin, Radharaman Ray, Prabhati Ray. Toxicogenomic Studies of Human Neural Cells Following Exposure to Organophosphorus Chemical Warfare Nerve Agent VX. Neurochemical Research. February 2013.
...Human hN2 neurons were obtained from Neuromics...
Image: Staining of hN2 Human Neurons with Tuj 1 (Neuron-specific class III beta-tubulin) (red) and Nestin (green). Counter stained with DAPI (blue). hN2 Cells-Electro Phys Data. 

Xiufang Guo, Severo Spradling, Maria Stancescu, Stephen Lambert, James J. Hickman. Derivation of sensory neurons and neural crest stem cells from human neural progenitor hNP1. Biomaterials, In Press, Corrected Proof,Mar 2013.doi:10.1016/j.biomaterials.2013.02.061
...hNP1, were obtained from Neuromics (Edina, Minnesota)...
Wei Zhang , Radhia Benmohamed, Anthony C. Arvanites, Richard I. Morimoto, Robert J. Ferrante, Donald R. Kirsch, Richard B. Silverman. Cyclohexane 1,3-diones and their inhibition of mutant SOD1-dependent protein aggregation and toxicity in PC12 cells. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry. Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.doi:10.1016/j.bmc.2011.11.039.
...Primary rat cortical tissue was purchased from Neuromics Inc., Edina, MN and used to initiate primary cortical neuron cultures. The tissue was isolated from micro-surgically dissected E18 embryonic Sprague/Dawley or Fischer 344 rat brain and shipped in a nutrient rich medium under refrigeration. To isolate neurons, the tissue was incubated with papain at a concentration of 2 mg/mL in Hibernate without calcium for 30 min at 37OC. The enzymatic solution was then removed, and 1 mL of culture media (Neurobasal, B27, 0.5 mM glutamine) was added. A sterile Pasteur pipette was used to gently disperse the cells, which were then washed, re-suspended and counted. The cells were plated on poly-D-lysine coated 96-well plates at a density of 20,000 cells/well and incubated at 37OC in a 5% CO2-humidified atmosphere for 5 days prior to use in compound testing. By microscopic inspection, the resulting cultures consisted of app. 90% neurons...
Majumder A, Dhara SK, Swetenburg R, Mithani M, Cao K, Medrzycki M, Fan Y, Stice SL. Inhibition of DNA methyltransferases and histone deacetylases induces astrocytic differentiation of neural progenitors. Stem Cell Res. 2013 Jul;11(1):574-86. doi: 10.1016/j.scr.2013.03.003. Epub 2013 Apr 2.
...Progenitor to Astrocytes Protocol: For astrocytic differentiation of hNP cells, neuronal differentiation media were supplemented with BMP2 (20 ng/mL) and combinations of Aza-C and TSA; Aza-C (500 nM), TSA (100 nM) and BMP2 (20 ng/mL) for 2 days, with one complete media change in between, followed by differentiation media supplemented with BMP2 but not with Aza-C or TSA. Cells were harvested prior to analysis at 5, 15 or 30 days of treatment or for cryopreservation at d6 or d10 of differentiation. For cryopreservation, cells were dissociated with Accutase™ and frozen in differentiation media containing10% DMSO. Viability was assessed at 30 days in Aza-C and TSA treated cultures by trypan blue exclusion, and datawas acquired using a Cellometer Auto T4® (Nexcelom Biosciences)...
Aparna Talekar, Antonello Pessi, and Matteo Porotto. Infection of primary neurons mediated by Nipah virus envelope proteins: Role of host target cells in antiviral action. J. Virol. doi:10.1128/JVI.00452-11.
...Hippocampus, Cortex and Ventricular Cells (Neuromics)...

I will continue posting results here.